Social loafing: A meta-analytic review and theoretical integration.
Karau, Steven J.; Williams, Kipling D.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol 65(4), Oct 1993, 681-706.
Social loafing is the tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than when working individually. A meta-analysis of 78 studies demonstrates that social loafing is robust and generalizes across tasks and S populations. A large number of variables were found to moderate social loafing. Evaluation potential, expectations of co-worker performance, task meaningfulness, and culture had especially strong influence. These findings are interpreted in the light of a collective effort model that integrates elements of expectancy-value, social identity, and self-validation theories. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)