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Citation and Abstract
Confirmation bias: A ubiquitous phenomenon in many guises.
Nickerson, Raymond S.
Review of General Psychology, Vol 2(2), Jun 1998, 175-220.
Confirmation bias, as the term is typically used in the psychological literature, connotes the seeking or interpreting of evidence in ways that are partial to existing beliefs, expectations, or a hypothesis in hand. The author reviews evidence of such a bias in a variety of guises and gives examples of its operation in several practical contexts. Possible explanations are considered, and the question of its utility or disutility is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)